Duque está obligado a hablar con la minga

Por GERMÁN AYALA OSORIO

En los encuentros y desencuentros entre gobiernos y la Minga indígena sobresalen dos factores clave: el primero un factor étnico, y el segundo un factor discursivo, esto es, el valor de la palabra. El factor étnico juega un papel fundamental porque ha permitido ver, con inusitada frecuencia y fuerza, la animadversión que sienten los delegados, ministros, consejeros ministeriales y presidentes de la República hacia los indígenas, en particular hacia los Nasa.

A pesar de su animosidad contra el pueblo indígena, el entonces presidente Álvaro Uribe (2002-2010) se vio obligado a escuchar a la Minga. A ese elemento claramente generador de tensiones y diferencias se sumaron decisiones de política económica, como la firma de varios Tratados de Libre Comercio (TLC) y la aplicación de la política de seguridad democrática, vistas por los indígenas como “planes de muerte”. Hay que recordar que durante los 8 años de Uribe las relaciones con los Nasa fueron tensas y conflictivas. Y tampoco se puede olvidar que por injerencia directa de Uribe y de Fabio Valencia Cossio, se creó la OPIC, organización con la que buscaron romper la unidad y el mando del CRIC. Sin duda, una vulgar estratagema del régimen de Uribe.

Ahora le corresponde el turno a Iván Duque, quien ha dejado ver la ojeriza con la que examina las actuaciones de los líderes del pueblo ancestral, razón por la cual ha evitado reunirse con estos. Tanto Uribe como Duque y seguramente los subalternos del segundo, se sienten “blancos”, circunstancia de carácter étnico que los hace proclives a mirar por encima del hombro a los miembros del pueblo Nasa.

Los Nasa saben ya no creen en promesas ni en actas firmadas. Por eso insisten en sentarse con Duque.
Foto tomada de Elespectador.com

Uribe y Duque hacen parte de una buena porción de la sociedad colombiana que niega el proceso de mestizaje y por ese camino, suelen instalarse en un lugar étnicamente privilegiado, desde el que miran con desprecio y desdén a los indígenas. Como hijos del proyecto de la euromodernidad, Duque y sus ministros o delegados se aprestan a dialogar con la Minga indígena. Eso sí, lo harán de manera obligada y desde el lugar favorecido que les da ser gobierno y en el que étnicamente ellos mismos suelen instalarse para desconocer las luchas y las demandas del pueblo ancestral.

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Sobre el factor discursivo y el valor de la palabra hay que decir que las diferencias son abismales. El listado de incumplimientos, por ejemplo en temas de titulación de tierras recuperadas por los indígenas, y garantías de seguridad, entre otros asuntos, es grande y cubre a varios gobiernos centrales. Es decir, los Nasa saben que los funcionarios mienten y hacen que los indígenas ya no crean en promesas y en actas firmadas por subalternos y ministros, cuyo valor jurídico es casi nulo. Por ello, insisten en sentarse con Duque y no con una comitiva en la que los indígenas no creen.

La palabra empeñada para los indígenas tiene un valor inconmensurable, hecho que choca contra la práctica política de mentir y de timar, muy frecuente en los operadores políticos interesados más en evitar la movilización y el registro noticioso de la Minga, que en dar soluciones estructurales a las demandas de los indígenas.

Como parte del factor discursivo, el lugar desde el que suelen hablar los ministros se suma negativamente a las ya tensas relaciones Minga-Gobierno. Ejemplo de lo anterior es lo expresado por la anodina ministra del Interior, Alicia Arango (antigua secretaria privada de Uribe), quien señaló: “Es muy importante que Colombia sepa que esta minga no es una reivindicativa, es de carácter político porque el Gobierno ha hecho grandes esfuerzos por cumplir lo pactado durante esta administración y las anteriores”.

No sé cómo hace la señora Arango para separar el carácter político de las acciones reivindicativas de los pueblos indígenas. Sus luchas son políticas porque enfrentan al poder hegemónico. Las Mingas son una expresión política porque están soportadas en el ejercicio político de un pueblo que actúa desde la dimensión colectiva y comunitaria que Alicia Arango no alcanza a comprender, porque ella, como millones de colombianos, está instalada en el discurso individualista atado a la modernidad.

Si miramos en detalle lo consignado por la señora Arango, encontramos que su dicho está atado a la tradición y a la inercia con la que el Estado colombiano actúa cuando tiene que atender compromisos firmados y responder por lo prescrito en la Carta Política. Arango dice que el Gobierno ha hecho grandes esfuerzos por cumplir lo pactado. No ministra, no se trata de hacer esfuerzos. Cuando se firma un acuerdo, lo consignado allí, se tiene que cumplir, porque lo que está en juego es la legitimidad del Estado, a través de la palabra empeñada.

Y claro, dentro de este factor discursivo no podrían faltar los actos de habla de quienes siempre intentan deslegitimar las acciones colectivas de los indígenas, señalando que la Minga está “infiltrada por el ELN y las disidencias de las Farc”. Ante la presión política que genera la movilización de más de 7 mil indígenas hacia la capital del país, el gobierno de Duque usa la inteligencia del Estado para estigmatizar a un movimiento pacífico, étnicamente localizado y aferrado a su propia ancestralidad.

Esperemos que Duque Márquez por fin actúe como Jefe de Estado y no como simple operador político de los intereses y de los actores que desde la legalidad y la ilegalidad vienen atacando al pueblo Nasa. Tiene que entender el huésped de la Casa de Nariño que los indígenas están y viven en resistencia. Como Jefe de Estado está obligado a dialogar con la Minga. Para hacerlo, debe entender que él forma parte del largo proceso de mestizaje al que pertenece la mayoría de los colombianos  y reconocer que tiene genes indígenas y afros. Duque, bájese de esa nube: usted no es ario. 

@germanayalaosor

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