¿En qué consiste la pelotera entre Armenia y Azerbaiyán?

Ante interrogantes planteados por lectores de El Unicornio, aquí se explica en qué consiste el enfrentamiento entre Armenia (nada que ver con la capital del Quindío) y Azerbaiyán, dos países del Cáucaso.

El Cáucaso, para los que en su bachillerato se rajaron en geografía, es una región situada entre Europa y Asia, más exactamente entre el mar Negro y el mar Caspio, que incluye la propia cordillera del Cáucaso.

Los dos países asiáticos hacían parte de lo que antes se conocía como la URSS o Unión Soviética, que en 1991 se desintegró y quedó convertida en 15 países, lo cual condujo a que ahora hay que aprenderse más nombres de capitales que antes.

Es como si los antioqueños se separaran de Colombia y crearan la República de Antioquia (cuyo primer presidente ya sabemos quién sería) y a la vez se separaran los costeños, y quedáramos divididos en tres países.

La bandera de Armenia tiene los mismos colores de Colombia, pero al revés.

Armenia, que tiene una bandera con los mismos colores de Colombia pero al revés, aún no se ha puesto de acuerdo en cómo se llama su capital, si Ereván o Yerevan, y esto conduce a pensar que si ellos mismos no han resuelto eso, cómo será para solucionar sus problemas con otros países…

Azerbaiyán, por su parte, tiene una capital con un nombre más fácil: Bakú.

Más allá de esto, el conflicto entre ambos países es por una región llamada Naborno-Karabaj, (otro nombre complicado, con guion de por medio y todo), una franja de más de 4.400 kilómetros cuadrados cuyos habitantes son de mayoría étnica armenia. Solo que hay un pequeño inconveniente, su territorio se encuentra incrustado dentro de Azerbaiyán, conformado por musulmanes y una mayoría turca.

Lo cierto es que la religión está de por medio, y en tal medida unos le rezan a Jesucristo, mientras los otros imploran a Alá -mirando hacia La Meca- para que les haga el milagrito de derrotar a sus vecinos.

En 1993 Armenia se hizo con el control efectivo de Nagorno-Karabaj (“lo mío es mío y nadie me lo quita”), y ocupó el 20 por ciento del territorio de Azerbaiyán que rodea la región. Esto trajo constantes enfrentamientos y el último que se recuerda fue en 2016 cuando murieron más de 300 personas en una guerra de cuatro días.

A pesar que un referendo hecho en Nagorno-Karabaj salió con el 90 por ciento de la población a favor de unirse a Armenia, Azerbaiyán se negó a la anexión, que es como cuando hace cuatro años el NO ganó en Colombia, en detrimento de la paz.

Allá, con el reinicio de las hostilidades en este 2020, ya van más de 100 muertos. Parece que no ha sido suficiente con los 963 que ha dejado el coronavirus en Armenia, y los 593 de Azerbaiyán por la misma causa.

Y como en todo enfrentamiento los actores buscan aliados, Azerbaiyán cuenta con el apoyo del presidente de Turquía, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, y Armenia con el apoyo de Rusia, es decir con el “pacífico” Vladimir Putin. Con estos amigos la paz se ve cerca…del infinito.

Sobra decir que tanto Putin como Erdogan tienen su interés estratégico centrado en un oleoducto que atraviesa Nagorno-Karabaj, y que lleva petróleo y gas a los mercados mundiales.

Los habitantes de Nagorno-Karabaj, cansados de que se estuvieran peleando por ellos, se proclamaron en república independiente, tanto de Armenia como de Azerbaiyán, pero hasta ahora ningún país de la comunidad internacional los ha reconocido.

Es así como se han vuelto a recrudecer los enfrentamientos en esta zona del mundo, por culpa de un conflicto ahora considerado el más viejo del mundo, título que tenía Colombia hasta hace poco pero que hoy el uribismo quiere resucitar, tal vez para no dejarnos de aquellos países del Cáucaso.

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